Are Addicts Victims of Drugs Or of Over-Crowding?
|December 10, 2013||Posted by Staff under Health|
A 2013 excerpt of garry’s subposthaven, Spt 13.
About the rats in a cage who can self-administer morphine who get addicted to the stuff, and then just hit that lever until they die. A seemingly keystone argument in the war against drugs. But there’s another model: drugs do not cause addiction, living conditions do. Laboratory rats kept isolated in cramped metal cages, tethered to a self-injection apparatus, show only that severely distressed animals, like severely distressed people, will relieve their distress pharmacologically if they can.
Rat Park housing colony, 200 times the square footage of a standard laboratory cage, had 16–20 rats of both sexes, an abundance of food, balls and wheels for play, and enough space for mating and raising litters. Rats who had been forced to consume morphine hydrochloride for 57 consecutive days were brought to Rat Park and given a choice between plain tap water and water laced with morphine. For the most part, they chose the plain water. Control groups of rats isolated in small cages consumed much more morphine in this and several subsequent experiments.
Rats that are born into extreme conditions in small cages are clearly more likely to self-medicate.
The results are catastrophic for the simplistic idea that one use of a drug inevitably hooks the user by rewiring their brain. When Alexander’s rats were given something better to do than sit in a bare cage they turned their noses up at morphine because they preferred playing with their friends and exploring their surroundings to getting high.
Perhaps it’s time the war on drugs becomes a war on the existence of poverty? It’s not about the drugs. It’s about the social environment in which we live.
Ed. Notes: A big part of social conditions is the size of our space. Crowding many people into small spaces happens when those people are poor, of course, but also when space is limited. Who limits space? Speculators do, when they withhold locations from productive use. And cities do, when they rely on taxes upon sales and income and buildings and so let lots lie vacant and buildings remain abandoned.
To motivate both calculating speculators and dull-witted cities, reform the flow of public revenue. Don’t let governments tax anything willy-nilly but require them to first recover the values that society generates before trying to tax anything else. What values does the mere presence of society generate? Those would be the values of locations. Levy a land tax or require Land Dues. Then owners will quit keeping land under-utiliized and to afford the charge get busy and develop their sites or sell to others. To increase public revenue, cities too will sell-then-tax or lease public land.
All that activity will increase the supplies of both land and buildings. Plus, the construction of buildings and filling some of them with shops and stores will increase job opportunity, raise wages, and give poor people the chance to climb into prosperity. In a society of prosperous people following fair economic rules, people will feel more worthy and hence less likely to need to escape via drugs.