Giveaways to Colombia's Corrupt Military
International Movement Opposes Tax-Funded Military Handouts to Colombia Government
About ten days ago, the following remarkable letter was sent to Bill Clinton, president of the U.S. federal government.
William J. Clinton
President of the United States of America
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue
Washington DC 20500
Dear Mr. President:
Our concern for the tragic situation facing the people of Colombia causes us to write to you. As citizens of many countries with a variety of political opinions, we are united in urging you to change your Colombian policy from a predominantly military strategy to an approach that supports the needs and hopes of the Colombian people.
While it is impossible to summarize in one letter all the dramatic circumstances affecting Colombia, we want to highlight the points that seem most alarming to us:
1. Reports from a number of sources, including the U.S. State Department, have documented the continuing collaboration between members and units of the Colombian armed forces and paramilitary groups. This collaboration has included several cases of open alliances. The paramilitaries, according to these reports, are responsible for 75% to 80% of the cases of assassination, kidnapping, torture, and massacre of civilian non-combatants, while the guerrilla groups and the armed forces commit the rest of these abuses. Only a few implicated officials and soldiers have been investigated and punished, while collaboration between the armed forces and the paramilitaries continues to this day. The U.S. contributes to the deterioration of this disturbing human rights situation by continuing to provide military aid, training, and sales, despite these well-documented reports of collaboration.We respectfully make the following requests of your administration:
2. The armed conflict has forced as many as 1.6 million internal refugees to seek protection for their lives and well-being, according to the United Nations. The number of families who have fled their homes in Colombia exceeds the forced expulsions that the world witnessed with horror in both Kosovo and East Timor. The U.S. is doing little to help care for the refugees that U.S. military aid is helping to create.
3. Further military aid will undermine the fragile peace process that has been initiated by President Pastrana. Civilians in Colombia have overwhelmingly voted for peace and marched in favor of peace. Massive infusions of military aid will not only increase the number of deaths and massacres carried out by all the armed groups, but will also strengthen hard-liners in Colombia who oppose the peace process. Recent murders of academics, human rights defenders, trade unionists and even entertainers who worked to support the peace process illustrate the difficulty of working for peace in Colombia.
4. The U.S. Drug War strategy has been an expensive failure and more of this same strategy will not combat drugs. This strategy has not reduced coca cultivation in Colombia, the flow of cocaine or heroin to the U.S from Colombia, or the profits of the drug traffickers. Instead it has caused untold environmental and human destruction. It has also strengthened the guerrillas as more landless peasants join their ranks. Military aid will not address the reasons why Colombians choose to cultivate drugs in the first place. The problems that have led to increased drug cultivation include state neglect of rural areas, a nonexistent rule of law, and the lack of economic infrastructure and opportunity. These problems can only be resolved through support for efforts to strengthen the peace process and to enhance the lives of the poor.
* Given the Colombian armed forces' continuing collaboration with the paramilitaries, such as in the massacre at Barrancabermeja in 1998, and their continuing impunity from prosecution for that collaboration, we ask that you send no further U.S. aid to the Colombian armed forces. You eloquently told the people of Guatemala in May of 1999:Respectfully,
"For the United States, it is important that I state clearly that support for military forces or intelligence units which engaged in violence and widespread repression of the kind described in the report was wrong. The United States must not repeat that mistake."
Colombia already receives the greatest amount of U.S. military aid in the Americas and the third most in the world. Please do not make the problem worse by giving any more money to the partners of the paramilitaries.
* We ask that you recognize the biased nature of the war on drugs, which is mainly being fought against landless peasants and unarmed civilians, leaving many real drug traffickers, including the paramilitaries, untouched. According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, some of the paramilitary leaders such as Carlos Castaño are major drug traffickers. Consequently, we object to using the war against drugs as even a partial pretext for increased military aid.
* We ask that the U.S. play a key role in supporting initiatives for international mediation in Colombia, with possible mediators including the European Parliament, the Secretary General of the UN, the UN High Commission for Refugees, and the International Committee of the Red Cross. This peace effort must include Colombia's civil society. On October 24th, 1999 the world witnessed marches for peace that mobilized more than nine million Colombians of all ages and social positions. Colombian civil society has courageously demanded and actively worked for peace and deserves to be heard. The U.S. should honor these efforts by providing Colombia with humanitarian and economic support, not the tools of war.
Congressional Endorsers from the United States -- Cynthia A. McKinney, Ranking Democrat, Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights
Organizational Endorsers from the United States -- Action for Community & Ecology in the Rainforests of Central America (ACERCA), Burlington, VT AFSCME Local #597, Martin County, FL The Alliance for Democracy, Delta County, CO Atlantic City Musicians Local 661-708, American Federation of Musicians Boston Colombia Support Network Bread and Roses Local of the War Resisters League California Peace Action The Campus Democracy Collective, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville Chicago Colombia Committee Citizens for Participation in Political Action (CPPAX), Boston, MA Colombia Human Rights Committee, Washington DC Colombia Media Project, New York Colombia Support Group of Minnesota Colombia Support Network Colombia Vive (Boston) Colombian Labor Monitor Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA) Howard County Friends of Latin America, Columbia, MD LA CASA Mission, Washington, D.C. New Hampshire Peace Action Nicaragua Network Northwest Veterans for Peace Peace Action (nationally) Peace Action of Washington Philadelphia Colombia Support Network Quantum Leap 2000 Rainforest Action Network Roxbury Community College Carribean Focus, Roxbury, MA SOA Watch Seattle CISPES Seattle Colombia Committee Sisters of St Joseph of Peace, Western Province Social Justice Committee of St Patrick's Parish, Seattle, WA Student Activist Union at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY Tacoma Catholic Worker Community, Guadalupe House of Hospitality Tao Kristian Community, Boston, MA University of Iowa Amnesty International Washington Alliance for Immigrant and Refugee Justice
Individual Endorsers from the United States -- Ibrahim Abdul-Matin, Medford, MA Janet Ackerman, Somerville, MA Byron Adams, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Stephen Advocate, Clinical Social Worker, U.S. Army Veteran, New Haven, CT Paula Dodd Aiello, San Ramon, California Gilbert Allen, Travelers Rest, SC Maxwell Aley, World War II Combat Veteran (Infantry), Paonia, Colorado (Western Slope) Javier Amaya Nicole Anderson, Student, Bemidji, MN Sue Andersen, Westboro, MA Dr. C. Brannon Andersen, Furman University, Greenville, SC Greta Anderson, Iowa City, Iowa Professor Art Antisdel, Detroit, MI Suzanne Antisdel, Detroit, MI Charles A. Arrington, Jr., Greenville, SC Emily Ashman, Lunenburg, MA Charles L. Atkins, Regional Director, Veterans for Peace, Columbia, MO Russell Attoe, Electronics Technician, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI Amanda Babson, Seattle WA Volker Bahn, Conservation Biologist, Auburn, AL Roger A. Baker, M.D, Mineral Wells, TX Richard Baldwin, S. Gardiner, ME Roberta Baldwin, S. Gardiner, ME Sasha Baltins, Minneapolis, MN Janis Bandelin, Greenville, SC Maryfran Barber, IHM, Detroit, Michigan Jeff Barham, Lutheran Family Services in the Carolinas Michael Barfield, Lawrence, KS Jesse Barnes, Cambridge, MA Marc Baron, Boston, USA Claire Barrera, Boston, MA Bob Barrett, Brookline, MA Pat Barrett, Founder and CEO, W.O.M.E.N. , Producers of WomensRadio.com, Oakland, CA 94608 Tom Barrus, Pharmacist & MBA, American Federation for Legal Consistency, Golden, Colorado Polly Barten, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Michelle Barth, Monterey, CA Veneta Bartlett, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Sam Barzilay, Medford, MA Robert Bassett, Scottsdale, AZ John Batson, Easley SC Rubye Baumgardner, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Robert E. Bayer, Arlington, Virginia. Ruth B. Beebe, League of Women Voters, Seedcorn, Potsdam, NY Beverly Bell, Burnsbille, NC Laura Belous, Scottsdale, AZ Jeffrey Benner, Journalist, Mother Jones Magazine Ned Bertz, International Alliance for People's Movements, Iowa City, Iowa Kevin Bensel, Seattle, WA Duane Bensel, Seattle, WA Soren Bergeson, New York, NY Brooks Berndt, Harvard Divinity School Student, Cambridge, MA Matthew Berry, Urbana, IL Lucille Bertuccio, Bloomington IN David Besser, Fort Collins, CO Joan E. Biren, Takoma Park, MD Trim Bissell, national coordinator, Campaign for Labor Rights, Washington, DC Lucy U. Blakeley, Colombian-American, Boston, MA Adam Block, Durham, NH Ellie Bluestein, Fresno, California Archie Wayne Blumhorst, Slater, MO Wanita L. Blumhorst, Slater, MO James M. Blythe, Professor of History, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN Marit Bockelie, Student, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Hans W. Bodlaender , Convener for the Gray Panthers of Seattle Broderick Bagert, Graduate Student, Oxford University, New Orleans, LA Melissa Bernardin, Concerned Citizen Rockport, Massachusetts Chuck Bergquist, Professor of Latin American and Labor History, University of Washingon, Seattle, WA Maria Christina Blanco, Chelsea, MA Peter Bohmer, Faculty in Political Economy, Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA Patrick Bonner, Colombia Action Project, Los Angeles, CA Scott Bonner Lee A. Booth (Ms.), Ypsilanti, MI Michael Borucke, Boston, MA Matthew Borus, Boston, MA Charles Boyer, Greenville, SC Kathy Bradshaw, Sacramento, CA Jenny Braun-Friedman, Somerville, MA Carole Brell, Cambridge, MA Brian A. Bremen, The University of Texas at Austin Faith Brightbill, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Hank Bromley, Buffalo, NY Damian Brum, Baytown, Texas Morton K. Brussel, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Christina Buckley, Furman U, Greenville, SC Jason Buhle, Claremont, CA Bruce Burdick, M.D., Physician, Sacramento, CA Adrienne Burnette, Boston, MA Thomas O. Buford, Louis G. Forgione Professor of Philosophy, Furman University, Greenville, SC Leslie Cagan, New York City, NY Norman Carlin, Sausalito, CA Peter Camarata, Founding Member of Teamsters for a Democratic Union, Chicago, IL Joanne CannonCarlson, Northampton, MA Lynette Carpenter, Delaware, OH Janice Cate, President Washington/Northern Idaho Church Women United Brook Marie B. Caughlin, Durham, NH Dr. Mina Davis Caulfield, Assoc Prof., San Francisco State University Cyndy Chan, Portland, Oregon Lynn D. Chapman, Worcester, MA Mrs. Loretta Chapman, Gardiner, MT Noam Chomsky, MIT, Cambridge, MA Beth A. Christensen, Furman University, Greenville, SC Michelle Ciarrocca, Research Associate, World Policy Institute, New York Dr. Elsa M. Chaney, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IOWA Marjorie Childress, Seattle Colombia Committee Constancio Chuzen Jalipa, St. Louis, MO Amanda S. Clark, San Juan, Texas Gordon S. Clark, Executive Director, Peace Action Roger Clement Cynthia Clevenger-Brum Baytown, Texas Kim Colby, Concord, NH John E. Coleman, Ithaca, NY John Collins, Clergyman, New Rochelle, NY Peter Collins, San Diego Randall N. Collins, 1Lieutenant, USAF veteran, New York, NY Sheila Collins, New Rochelle, NY Curtis Cooper, Charlottesville, VA Joshua Cooper, UCSD Department of Mathematics, San Diego, CA Rachael Cooper, Boston, MA Anna Corte, Prescott, AZ Ramon Cortina, Teasuque, NM Roy E. Coughlin, Athens, GA Carrol B. Cox, Illinois State Univ. (retired), Bloomington, Illinois Rev. Dr. Davida Foy Crabtree, Conference Minister, Connecticut Conference, United Church of Christ Jheri Cravens, Rohnert Park, CA Joy Crocker, Director, Quantum Leap 2000, Oakland, CA Sylvia Crook, President, AFSCME Local 1185, Des Moines, Iowa Laura Crossley, Iowa City, IA Casey Crowley, Prescott, AZ Chris Crowley, Prescott AZ Bret Csencsitz, Free-lance Journalist, Activist, New York, NY Gladys Cuellar, Colombian, Seattle WA Claricia Cummings, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Ed Cushman, Seattle, WA Lisa D'Alessio, Student, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine Amy Damashek, Graduate Student in Clinical Psychology, Columbia, Missouri Andrew D'arezzo, Campus Democracy Collective, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville Liliana M. Dávalos, New York, NY Carolyn Davis, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Darien De Lu, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Oakland, CA Joseph de Rivera, Clark University, Worcester, MA Andrew de Sousa, East Timor Action Network/Arizona, Tempe, Arizona Dirk DeGeyndt, Director of Yoga Mandir, Los Angeles, CA Julia Delacour, United Transportation Union, Seattle WA Justin Delacour, Seattle Colombia Committee Sandra Delgado Merrill, Warrensville, MO Joshua DeLong, Boston, MA Dayle Demers Kerry J. Denvir, Boston, MA Elliot A. DeVries, Palatine, IL David Diamond, Dover, New Hampshire Lucille Dickinson, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Rob Didriksen, Jefferson City, MO Marc Dingman, College Student, La Grande, Oregon Sr. Jacquelyn Doepker, Associate Director, Catholic Commission on Social Action, Akron, Ohio Bruce S. Dohner, Patterson, California Raymond T Donaldson, Fulton, Maryland Kevin Donegan, Berkeley, CA Hildegard Dorrer, Waunakee, WI Susan Samuels Drake, Author Amy Dugan, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Floyd Dugan, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Tris M. Dunn, Manhattan Beach, CA Molly Dupre, Columbia, MO Jane Eiseley, Madison, WI Jean Eden, Madison, Wisconsin Martin Eder, San Diego, CA Kate Edwards, Los Angeles, CA Lisa Edwards, President, AFSCME Local #597, Martin County, FL Linda J. Egan, Registered Democrat, North Olmsted, OH Keith Elliott, Albuquerque, NM Danielle Ellis, San Diego, CA Sarah Ellis, Worcester, MA Jim Ellsworth, Clinton, Maine Stefan Erickson, La Jolla, CA Prof. Peter Erlinder, Past President, National Lawyers Guild, NY Cristina Espinel, Co-chair, Colombia Human Rights Committee, Washington D.C. Rene Espinosa Marci Esquerra, Michigan Demerie Faitler, Greenville, SC Evan Fales, Amnesty International, Iowa City Kevin Fansler, Havre de Grace, MD Rosemary Farrell, Silver City, NM Jaime Fatás, Cambridge, MA Verna M. Fausey, Nashville, TN Thomas J. Feagley, Executive Director, Bread of Life, Malden, MA Peter Ferenbach, Executive Director, California Peace Action, Berkeley Nicole Fernald, Westford, MA Eric Feutz, Columbia, MO Jeffrey Fisher, Chicago, IL Paul Fitch, Eighth Day Church, Washington, DC Michael Fix, Rosendale, NY Rhonda Fleischer, M.S.W., Ithaca, NY William V. Fleitz III, Falls Church, Virginia Videlbina Flores-Fitch, Eighth Day Church, Washington, DC Roberto Forns-Broggi, Denver , CO Kim Foster, Malden, MA Sissi Foster Stuart Foster, Pianist and Prof. of Landscape Arch., Lansing, MI John Fournelle, Madison, WI Michael Forman, Tacoma, Wa Sally Fredericks, Moscow, ID Laura Free, Los Lunas, NM Scott Free, Los Lunas, NM Robert Freidin, Program in Linguistics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ Ellen Friedland, New York, NY Jim Fuge, Durango, Colorado Paul Fuller, Buffalo, NY Elizabeth Furbush, Helena, MT Mrs. Ruth Gabey, West Gardiner, ME Steve Gallant, Cambridge, MA James K. Galbraith, Chair, Economists Allied for Arms Reduction Judy Galens, Huntington Woods, MI Olga L. Garces, Seattle, WA Richmond L. Gardner, Pensacola, FL Eloy Garza, Austin, Texas Philip Gatt, Boca Raton, Florida Barbara Gerlach, Co-chair, Colombia Human Rights Committee, Washington D.C. Jessica Gerlach-Mack, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC, USA Peter Gerlach-Mack, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Brian Gianelli, Prescott, AZ Lucy Gibson, Madison, WI Alison Giffen, Washington DC Eric Gillespie, Jr., Oxford, MS Kathleen M. Gillespie, Amnesty International, Local Group 133, Somerville, MA Ross S. Gillespie, Houston, TX Joanne Giorgio, Shutesbury, MA Raymond Giroux, Boston, MA Jeff Glass, Studio City, CA Joyce Glynn, San Francisco, CA Jim Goldberg, Artist/Writer of Numerous Books, San Francisco, CA Iris Gomez, Milton, MA Luis F. Gomez, Jersey City, NJ Corinne Goodman, Brooklyn, New York Patricia M. Goodman, CPA, Huntington Beach, CA Augusta Gordon, Laconia, NH April Gorry de Puga, Ph.D., Hispanic Health Council, Hartford, CT Margaret Grannis, Latin America Committee, Arizona Institute for Peace, Education, and Research Dennis Grammenos, Professor, Northeastern Illinois University Max Gratrix Tucson, AZ Gerry Graybill, Glen Rock, PA Harry Graybill, Glen Rock, PA John Grebe, Meford, MA Tom Grosman, Delrey Beach, FL Philip H. M. Grove, Attorney at Law, Minneapolis, MN James R. Grover, Veteran, Independent Voter, Old Saybrook, CT Mary Sue Guenther, Little Rock, AR Angela Guerrero, National Association of Social Workers, Sudbury, MA Sue Guist, WILPF, Morgan Hill, CA Thomas Guthrie, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Angie Gutierrez , Greenville, SC José L. Gutiérrez-Vargas, Montgomery Village, MD Kenneth Gutman, Seattle, WA Harley Guy, Prescott, AZ Alan Haber, Interfaith Council for Peace and Justice, Ann Arbor, Michigan Sandra Hackman, Bedford, MA Mark Haim, Director, Mid-Missouri Peaceworks, Columbia, MO Cardell Hairrill, Wichita Falls, TX Yadviga D. Halsey, PhD., Seattle, WA MaryEllen Hamblin, Washington State David Hamilton, University of Iowa Center for Human Rights, Iowa City, IA Erica Hamilton, Los Angeles, CA Mina Hamilton, Brooklyn, NY Ava Haney, Portland, OR Kim Hanna, November Coalition, Drug Policy Forum of Texas (DPFT) John R. Hanson, Spartanburg, SC Kate Harris, Hampshire College, Amherst, MA John Hart, Ph.D, Chair, Department of Theology, Carroll College, Helena, MT Dean Hargett, Columbia, MO Ian Harvey, High School Teacher, NEA member, Naples, FL Barbara Hayes, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Spencer Hays, Aptos, CA Bryan Head, Boston College, Boston, MA Rachel Heckscher, University of Massachusetts - Amherst, School of Public Health Ann Heidenreich, Seedcorn, Canton, NY Albert Heier, Retiree, Former Press Officer of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Alexandria, VA Renee Heier, Retiree, Former Elementary School Teacher, Alexandria, VA Russell Heines, Amnesty International Volunteer, Group 133, Arlington, MA Rudolf Heller, Brookfield, MA Elaine Hencke, Southampton, NY Scott Henderson, Greenville, South Carolina Chris Hendricks, Pasadena, TX Dr. Mary Hendrickson, Columbia, Missouri Kyle Henry, Astoria, New York Gloria Herman, Monroe. WA Mike Herman, Monroe, WA Angelene Hernandez, Scottsdale, AZ Celeste Hill, Paonia, CO Cynthia Hobbs, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Connie Hogarth, The C. Hogarth Center for Social Action at Manhattanville College, Purchase, NY Christina Holcroft, Lowell, MA Maria Hope, Amnesty International, Iowa City, Iowa Hop Hopkins, Seattle, WA Geoffrey Radford Hope, Iowa City, Iowa Kathleen Horner, Greenville, SC Adam F. Horst, Cambridge, MA Rebecca L. Houlihan, Boston, MA Gwyneth Howden, Aberdeen, WA Katherine Hoyt, National Co-Coordinator, Nicaragua Network Stephen Hudson, Greenville, SC Liza Goldman Huertas, Somerville, MA Eric Huff, Dubuque, Iowa Odile Hugonot-Haber, Interfaith Council for Peace and Justice, Ann Arbor, Michigan Richard Hugus, Cape Cod, MA Walter N.Huli Jr., Member of ILWU local 13, San Pedro, California Kenneth Humphrey, Middletown, CT Mariel Hunkeler, Taylors, SC Hep Ingham, Houston, TX David Ingram, Professor, Loyola University, Chicago, IL Molly W. Jacobs, Seattle, WA Jean Jackson, Professor of Anthropology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA John M. Jackson, Redondo Beach, CA Nathaniel Jackson, Student at Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN Alvaro Jarrin, Williamstown, MA Sofia Jarrin,, Amnesty International, Group 133, Malden, MA Sabine Jeske, Worcester, MA Erin Jeziorski, Seattle WA Robert Johansen, Lancaster, MA James S. Johnson, Sec/Treas, American Federation of Musicians, Local 709, Bozeman, MT Justine Johnson, Easthampton, MA Michael Johnson, New York, NY Nancy Johnson, Greenville, SC Anna Jones, Weston, MA Linda Julian, Furman University, Greenville, SC Neal Kassanoff, Austin, TX Nathaniel J. Katz, Flushing, NY Chris Keane, Pittsburgh, PA Drew Kearns, Greenville, SC Sofía Kearns, Greenville, SC Nancy Keating, Concerned Citizen, Ridgecrest, CA Kevin Keenan, Brooklyn, New York Lisa Keenan, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania John Kefalas, Fort Collins, CO Father Gerry Kelly, Co-Chair, Columbia Vive, Boston, MA Jerome Kelly Arthur Keys, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Yasna Keys, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Madge Kho, Friends of the Filipino People, Boston-Okinawa Network Joan King, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Mary King, Associate Professor of Economics, Portland State University, Portland, OR Jonathan Kirschner, Waltham, MA Tye Kirk, Business Students Care, Iowa City, IA Paul Kivel, Oakland, CA Andy Klatt, Tufts University Don Kliese, Madison, WI Doris Knight, UNAUSA, Peru Peace Network, Colombia Support Network, Des Moines, IA David Kofke, Middletown, NJ Ryan Kosel, Prescott, AZ Jason Kotoch, Lunenburg, MA Emma Kreyche, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY John Krumm, Saint Paul, MN Renate Kuder, German, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR Charles M. Kukla, Organized Labor Liaison, Indiana University College Democrats Jordan Kushner, Minneapolis, MN Brandon Kuykendall, Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, OH Livia Yah-Sye Lam, Workers' Voices Coalition, Seattle Young People's Project Laurie Laird, San Jose, CA Tammy Lambert, Prescott, AZ Orin Langelle, Executive Director, ACERCA, Burlington, VT Inna Larsen, Madison, WI Jeff Larsen, Madison, WI Brian T. Larson, Madison, WI Peggy Larson, Rochester, Minnesota Jack Laun, President of Colombia Support Network Lee Lawrence, Memphis, TN James A. Laurie, Presbyterian Church, Denver, CO Larry Lauro, SOA-Watch, San Jose James Ledoux, Litchfield, NH Clifford Lehman, Writer, Portland OR Aaron G. Lehmer, Graduate Student, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA Sandy Leon, Bolinas, CA George Leonard, Rhode Island Betsy Leondar-Wright, Arlington, MA Lauren Lepranto, Dorchester, MA Joseph Levine, Dept. of Philosophy & Religion, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC Amber Lewis, Boston Emily G.Lewis, Amherst, MA Tom Lewis, International Socialist Organization, Iowa City, Iowa Jess Liborio, Somerville, MA Jay Lintner, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Jeffrey Littenberg, Boston, MA Richard Lochner, Portland, OR Jo Lockman, Fitchburg, MA R. Juanita Loison Dawn Lonsinger, Lewisburg, PA Steve Lorenz, Easthampton, MA Liz Loveland, Boston, MA Eve Lowery, Seattle, WA Mary Luckey, Professor, San Francisco State University Chris Lugo, The Emma Center, Nashville, Tennessee James Lupolt, San Antonio, Texas Steve Lyons, Paonia, CO John Mack, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Meg Maguire, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Liam Mahony, Princeton, NJ Brent Maness, Columbia, MO Anthony March, Gainesville, FL Sandra Mardigian, Palo Alto, CA Eugene Marner, Franklin, NY Don Martin, Jackson, WY Joe Martin, Seattle, WA Myrna Martin, Jackson, WY Terry Martin, Cleveland, OH Toty Martin, Cleveland, OH Rosalinda Martinez, Woodland, CA Christopher Masterjohn, West Brookfield, MA Shelly Mathews, Greenville, SC Ines Maturana, Colombian Citizen, Quincy, MA Anna Maynard, Narragansett, RI W. Duncan McArthur, Jr., Greenville, SC Tom McCann, Westminster, CO Nancy McConnell, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Annie McEnroe, Student, Berea, Ohio Mary Ann McEvoy, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Elizabeth McElhill, Pismo Beach, CA Jesse McGowan, Cal Poly State University, Morro Bay, CA Michael McNeil, Minneapolis, MN José Luis Medina, Brooklyn, New York John Meinken, Cincinnati, OH Mohan Menon, Los Angeles, CA Jason Merchant, Linguistics Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Ralph Metzner, Ph.D., Green Earth Foundation, El Verano, CA Shanna Miller, UC Santa Cruz Dr. Antonia Mills, Associate Professor of First Nations Studies, Prince George, British Colombia Arthur R. Mink, Member Executive Board, Leschi Community Council, Seattle, WA Lynn Mink, Member Executive Board, Leschi Community Council, Seattle, WA Bruce Mitchell, Farmington, Maine Amy Mocarsky, University of Rhode Island, West Warwick, RI Eduardo Moncada, Providence, Rhode Island Dreux S. Montgomery, Madison, WI Stefano Monti, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Ceylon Mooney, Humanitarian Action Collective, Memphis, TN Patricia J. Mooney, Lawyer, Davenport, Iowa Steven J. Moore, Tewksbury, MA Hank Isaac Moore, Educator, Tucson, Arizona James Moore, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Mary Moroney, Madison, Wisconsin Hilda Morris, Richmond, VA Lloyd Morris, Richmond, VA Saundra Morris, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA Lawrence J. Mosqueda, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA Kalista Mountjoy, Columbia, MO Michael J. Mullin, Entering Medical Student Fall 2000, UCLA Kevin Murray, Grassroots International, Jamaica Plain, MA Jennifer Murphy, Boston, MA Robert Naiman, 50 Years is Enough Network, Steering Committee Brigham Narins, Huntington Woods, Michigan Beatrice Nava, New York, NY Colin Neiburger, Miami, FL Lee T. Neidow, Kentwood, Michigan Jerry Newt, Los Gatos, California Jon Nissenbaum, Cambridge, MA Jane Noll, World Education, Amherst, Massachusetts Stefano Odoardi, Golden, CO Julie O'Donnell, Eugene, OR Patrick O'Hayer, Libertyville, IL Davis Oldham, University of Washington, Seattle, WA María Mercedes Ortiz, Colombian citizen, Seattle, WA Sutti Ortiz, Prof. Emeritus Boston University, Boston, MA Amy Ostrander, Iowa City, Iowa Dale Ostrander, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Sarah Ott, Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, OH Guy Ottewell, Author and Publisher, Universal Workshop, Furman University, Greenville, SC Heath Paine, Prescott, AZ Ariel Palmon, Cambridge, MA Robert E. Parent, Marlborough, MA Alex Papali, Autonomous Dravidians, Boston, MA Joan Para, Chicago Colombia Committee Robert E. Parent, Marlborough, MA Chantal Paydar, Somerville, MA Talima Pearson, Flagstaff, Arizona Robert N. Peck, Retired Assistant Professor of German and Humities, Furnace, PA April Pedersen, Washington D.C. William A. Pelz, Ph.D., Chicago Angela Perez, Cambridge, MA Gustavo Perico, Detroit, MI Alan F. Perry, Kansas City, MO Carolann Perry, Dorchester, MA David F. Perry, Brooklyn, NY Christine Petersen, Berkeley, CA Gigi Peterson, PhD., University of Washington, Seattle WA Jonathan Christian Petty, Center for Korean Studies, U.C. Berkeley, CA James L. Phelan-Caceres, Graduate student, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA Hollis Pfitsch, Washington Alliance for Immigrant and Refugee Justice, Seattle, WA Luella Piatt, Akron, OH Sophia Pierroutsakos, Greenville, SC Elaine Pinches, Brookline, MA Shayna Plaut, Chicago, IL Shawn Porter, Parthenon, AR Maria Posada, Seattle Shawn Porter, Parthenon, AR John Paul Posada, Norwood, MA Lance B. Price, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ Laura M. Purdy, Ithaca, NY Seth Quackenbush, Eugene, OR Chris Rack, PhD, Marian College, Indianapolis, IN Aghaghia Rahimzadeh, Arcata, CA Annette Ramadan, Dorchester, MA Phyllis Ratte, Clifton Park, NY Raymond Ratte, Clifton Park, NY B. Jason Reardon, Sycamore, IL Thomas C. Reeves, Professor of History, Roxbury Community College, Roxbury, MA Patrick Reinsborough, Grassroots Coordinator, Rainforest Action Network Scott Remillard, Seattle, WA Jason Rens, Prescott, AZ Carol Richardson, co-director, SOA Watch Sarah Richardson, Weston, MA Constance Riley, the Peace Team, Fitchburg, MA Matt Rittenhouse, Boston, MA Cynthia Roberts-Hall, Colombia Support Network and Jobs with Justice, Nashville, IN Rocio Rodriguez, Amnesty International Group 133, South Hadley, MA Stephen K Roffler, Madison, Wisconsin David Rohrlich, Professor, Boston University, Boston, MA Candace Romig, MA Health Policy Analyst, Denver, CO Alynne Romo, Chicago Colombia Committee Kimberly D. Root, Westminster, CA Richard L. Root, Westminster, CA Katy Rose, Montana Community Labor Alliance/Jobs with Justice, Helena, MT Robert D. Roughton, Belgrade, MT Erika Ruber, Portland James Russell, Longmeadow, MA Andy Ryder, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY Carlos Saavedra, Richmond, VA Karobi Sachs, Roslindale, MA Tom Sager, Rolla, MO Eddie Salazar, Seattle CISPES Leslie Salgado, Chairwoman, Howard County Friends of Latin America, Columbia, MD Mark Salzer, Arlington, MA Jeremy Sanders, Prescott, AZ Teresa Saska, Document Analyst, Columbus, OH Tim Scherer, San Francisco, California Sarah Olson Schmidt, Cambridge, MA Joel Schulman, lifelong Democrat (until now), Northampton, Massachusetts Virginia Schulman, lifelong Democrat (until now), Northampton, Massachusetts Sandra Schwartz, San Francisco, CA Maggie Scott, Boston, MA John Skrodenis, Worcester, MA Katheryn H. Seiders, Pittsburgh, PA Elias Ian Senter, Baltimore, Maryland Kevin C. Seymour, Phd, Organizational & Clinical Psychologist, Ridgecrest, CA Susan Shaer, Executive Director, Women's Action for New Directions (WAND), Washington D.C. John C. Shelley, Greenville, SC David Sheppard, Paonia, CO Ruth Shinn, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington DC Elisa Shuck, Columbia, MO Christopher A. Shumway, Columbus, Ohio Brian Siegel, Greenville, SC Robert J. Siegel, Attorney, Seattle, WA Marvin Simmons, Secretary, Northwest Veterans for Peace, Portland, OR Alice Slater, Global Resource Action Center for the Environment (GRACE), New York, NY Audra Slocum, President University of Iowa Amnesty International, Iowa City, IA Nancy Small, National Coordinator, Pax Christi Carol A. Smith, Rolla, MO Frank Smith, Bluff City, KS Geoff Smith, Austin, MN Martin L. Smith, Indianapolis, IN Natica Smith, Tufts University, Medford, MA Sara Smith, East Timor Action Network, Los Angeles, CA Erykaa Snudel , Weston, MA Eric Sommerfeld, Somerville, MA Kate Sopko, Kent, OH Sandra Sorensen, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington DC R. Olof Sorensen, Greenville, SC Cecilia Soto, Renton WA Roberto Soto, Renton WA Andrea Spain, Fort Collins, CO Fredda Sparks, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington DC Diana Spencer, Seattle, Washington John Sriokle, Newton, MA Edward F. Steichen, Waunakee, WI Julia Steinberger, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Tom Stephens,Warren, MI Tyler Steward, Amnesty International, Iowa City, Iowa William A. Stivers, Anchorage, AK Peter Stone, Anarchist Action of Rochester, Rochester, New York Nathan Strait, Kendall College of Art and Design, Grand Rapids, MI Uri Strauss, Amherst, MA Douglas Sturm, Prof.Emeritus of Religion & Political Science at Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA Phyllis Swackhamer, Paonia, CO Dolores Taller, Berkeley, CA Alisa Tanaka, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Richard Tarnas, Ph.D., California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA Doug Theriault, Portland, Oregon Diane E. Thompson, Godfrey, IL Joshua Thompson, Provisional Coordinator, Coalition for Nebraska Cannabis Education, Omaha, NE Fran Teplitz, Policy Director, Peace Action Education Fund Ben Terrall, San Francisco, CA Ellen Thomas. Proposition One Committee, Washington, DC Mary Lewis-Thorne, Fitchburg,MA Dr. Stephen E.Thorne, Fitchburg, MA Lisa Thurman, Certified Clinical Addictions Specialist, North Carolina Brian Tiburzi, St. Louis, MO Izumi Tokunaga, Greenville, SC Bruce Triggs, Tacoma, WA Paul David Tuff, Salinas, CA Margaret Tuthill, Seattle, WA Jimmy Udall Stefanie Valovic, Cambridge, MA Bernarda Vargas, Boston, MA Joanne Vargas-Vales, Oak Park, IL Diane Vecchio, Greenville, SC Jessica Vecchione, Las Vegas, Nevada Marcia Veldman, Jobs with Justice, Bloomington, IN Dr. Diana L. Vélez, Associate Professor, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Russ Vernon-Jones, Elementary School Principal, Amherst, MA Jeff Vincent, Bloomington, IN Benjamin Vogel, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Donna J. Volatile, Teasuque, NM Alice Waco, Board member, Sonoma county Peace and Justice Center, California Chloe Wagner, Weston, MA Anne U. Walker, Central American Refugee Assistance Committee, Millfield, Ohio Kevin A. Sherper Walker, Master's Student in City/Regional Planning, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Nathan Walker, Rockport, MA Tom Warner, Seattle, WA Olivia Watson, Boston, MA David P. Watts, Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT Kris Weber, Seattle, WA Cathy Webster, Chico, CA Jennifer Webster, International Activist, Genoa, NY Mark Weimer, Church of God, Richland, WA Adam Weinberg, Needham, MA Marilyn Weiner, Somerville, MA Jeffrey J. Weiss, Professor, Des Moines Area Community College Margaret N. Weitzmann, Global Network, Center for Defense Information, Seedcorn, Potsdam, NY Gary Weglarz, Helena, MT Alex Welte, Dept of Physics & Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA Eric Weltman, Organizing and Policy Director, CPPAX, Boston, MA Wilhelm Welzenbach, Seattle, WA Jake Werner, Evanston, IL Lynn Osheroff Werner, Producer-Director of Educational Videos, Orinda, California Joan Wibbenmeyer, Columbia, MO Howard Wilbur, First Congregational United Church of Christ, Washington, DC Nick Wilkinson, Cleveland, Ohio Matthew Willse, Jamaica Plain, MA Shane Wilson, Marlboro, NJ Suzanne Wilson, Mankato, Minnesota Jeff Wilson-Braun, Watertown, MA Ariana L. Wohl, Northampton, MA Ethan Wolf, Waltham, MA William Wolfe, Burlingame, CA Billy Woodall, Seattle Mary Lou Woodward, The American Humanist Society, Seattle, WA Diana Woycheshin, Cottonwood, AZ William Yates, Oneonta, NY Ana Zambrano, Colombian Citizen Janet Zampieri, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Oakland, CA Barbara Zilles, Amnesty International Mike Zmolek, Iowa City, Iowa, Amnesty International
Individual Endorsers from Argentina -- Humberto Alagia, Professor, National University of Cordoba
Individual Endorsers from Australia -- Catherine Bateson, Writer, Kyneton Tania Brown, Quality Assurance Manager, Adelaide Alison Croggon, Melbourne Jim Deed, Adelaide Alicia Jane Evans, Sydney, New South Wales Damian G. Evans, Sydney Gavin Gee-Clough, Student, Brisbane Donal Kempton, Software Engineer, Kyneton,Victoria
Individual Endorsers from Austria -- John Saudino, Vienna
Organizational Endorsers from Belgium -- Serpaj Europa, Brussels
Individual Endorsers from Belgium -- Jean Bricmont, Professeur à l'Université Catholique de Louvain Peter Cristiaensen, Education Department, Oxfam-Wereldwinkels, Gent, Belgium Johan van den Broek, Student, Tielrode An Vranckx, PhD, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels
Individual Endorsers from Brazil -- Andre Mandolesi
Organizational Endorsers from Canada -- Executive Board of American Federation of Musicians Local #553, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Individual Endorsers from Canada -- Colleen Burke, Toronto, Canada Kevin Connolly, Kingston, Ontario Edward C. Corrigan, Barrister and Solicitor, London, Ontario John De Jesus Milutin Dragicevic, Ontario André Goyette, Montréal Dave Hazzan, Victoria, BC Glen Horenblas, Toronto Edward A. Jenkins, Toronto Carl Klassen, MB, Winnipeg Gert Kohler, Oakville, Ontario Raphael Laforest, Quebec Barbara Lando, Vancouver, BC Monique Laramée, Verdun, Canada Victor Lau, UFCW Local 1400, Shop Steward 1580, Regina, Saskatchewan Julia Nielsen, Edmonton, Alberta Kathleen DeWitt Newell, Calgary, Alberta Marie Pelletier, Québec Jernej Polajnar, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Prince George, Canada Joseph Raso, Hamilton, Ontario Dr. David F. Steele, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Ann Thomson, Vancouver, B.C. Lee van der Heiden, Sechelt, British Columbia Tom Vouloumanos, New Democratic Party (Québec-Section) Dana Winkler, Calgary, Alberta Stephen Ziff, Vancouver, BC
Organizational Endorsers from Colombia -- CERFAMI, Medellín
Individual Endorsers from Colombia -- Gloria Bejarano Castro Juan Fernando Franco Berón, Bogotá Darío González Posso, Director del Instituto de Estudios para el Desarrollo y la Paz - INDEPAZ, Bogotá Roberto Gutiérrez, Ph.D., Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá Emilio José Chaves, Pasto Sandra Lid Bautista R., Santa Fe de Bogotá, D.C. Mario Mejia Gutierrez, Ingeniero Agrónomo, Productor Orgánico, Cali Adelfa Martínez Bonilla, Bogotá Jenny Nieto Mejía, Bogotá Carmen Posada, Directora Ejecutiva, CERFAMI Yasmid Sandoval MN, Bogotá
Individual Endorsers from Costa Rica -- Germán Gutiérrez, Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones, San José, Costa Rica
Individual Endorsers from El Salvador -- Vilma Alvarenga, San Salvador Miguel Castro, San Salvador Cristy de Cruz, SITRASALUD, San Salvador Gloria Flores, San Salvador Julio Flores, SOICSCES, San Salvador Adalberto Galdamez, SITRASALUD, San Salvador Andres Garcia, SITINPROVA, San Salvador Marina Gonzalez, San Salvador Alex Hernandez Ismael Hernandez, SOICSCES, San Salvador Felix Lopez, San Salvador Carlos Maravilla, SETAG, San Salvador Bartolome Navarrete, CTD, San Salvador Fausto Payes, San Salvador L. Alonso Ramirez, San Salvador Ricardo Ramirez, San Salvador Gilberto Rivera, SITINPROVA, San Salvador Ana Maria Sanchez, SITRASALUD, San Salvador Evelyn Zelaya, San Salvador
Organizational Endorsers from France -- Terre Des Hommes France, Paris
Individual Endorsers from France -- Daniel Lambert, Paris Colm O'Gairbhith, Toulouse
Organizational Endorsers from Germany -- Gewerkschaft ÖTV Stralsund
Individual Endorsers from Germany -- Anthony Brown, PhD, European Southern Observatory, Munich Martina Falter, Amnesty International, Aachen Affiliation: amnesty international Helmut Fiedler, Stuttgart Rosanne Fiedler, Stuttgart Wolfgang Fuss Angelo Lucifer, Erfurt, Gewerkschaft HBV Ralf Milde, CulturConsulting, Ulm Mary E. Kelley-Bibra, Sekretaerin, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung, Berlin Bettina Küntzel, Bonn Burkhard Schröder, Journalist und Schriftsteller, Berlin Manfred Wolter, Augsburg, Germany
Individual Endorsers from Greece -- George Papavasiliou, Research Physicist, Athens,Greece Vasilis Psycharis, Research Physicist,Athens,Greece Nikos Raptis, Author, Athens, Greece Katerina Raptopoulou, Research Chemist, Athens, Greece Aris Terzis, Research Chemist,Athens, Greece
Individual Endorsers from India -- Shaki Prakash, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Individual Endorsers from Israel -- Amos Gevirtz, Kibbutz Shfayim Arieh Grumet, Omer
Organizational Endorsers from Italy -- Peacelink
Individual Endorsers from Italy -- Ernesto Spinelli, Rome Adolfo Fantoni
Individual Endorsers from Japan Brian Small, Miyazaki-ken
Individual Endorsers from Mauritius Island Wendy Austin, Pomponette Beach
Individual Endorsers from Nicaragua Camillus Dufresne, American Citizen, Managua Sister Maggie Fisher, SCN, Managua Iván García Marenco
Individual Endorsers from Norway Mark Conrad, Eiksmarka,Norway Peter Eisenstein, U.S. Citizen, Oslo, Norway Helge Hasselgreen Ragnar Kleiven, Oslo, Norway Knut Rognes, Stavenger, Norway, Stavanger University College Geir Helge Systad, Tromsoe, Norway Dag Tangen, Associate Professor, Norwegian School of Mangement, Oslo
Individual Endorsers from the Phillipines Damon Lynch, Manila
Individual Endorsers from Portugal Manuel Belo Moreira, Teacher, Technical University of Lisbon Viana do Castelo Ivo Cunha
Individual Endorsements from Singapore Nicholas Alchin
Individual Endorsements from South Africa Nathan Geffen, Cape Town
Organizational Endorsers from Spain Acció Social. CGT, Generalitat de Catalunya Comitè Català de Solidaritat amb Colòmbia, Barcelona Comite de Solidaridad Internacionalista de Zaragoza, Aragon Entrepobles, Barcelona Entrepueblos-Colombia, La Rioja Gallopinto Revista del Comité de Solidaridad Internacionalista, Zaragoza Grupo de apoyo a las Comunidades de Paz de Urabá, Zaragoza Equipo Nizkor (Nizkor International Human Rights Team) Verneda Solidària, Barcelona
Individual Endorsers from Spain Laura Agirretxea Martinez, Bilbao, Euskal Herria Juan Carlos Burillo Garcia, Villamayor-Zaragoza Dr. Anton Haidl D., Univ. of Cádiz (UCA), Dep. de Filología Francesa e Inglesa Rafael Lozano G., Sevilla Demian Martos Pablo Mora Garcia, Sevilla Joaquin Saurin Parra., La Coruna., Spain
Organizational Endorsers from Sweden AFA Stockholm
Individual Endorsers from Sweden Tove Wallsten Anna Axelsson Åsa Esseen Sara Malmgren Anna Hansson Erik Josefsson Nora Räthzel, Senior Researcher, University of Umea, Department of Sociology, Umea
Individual Endorsers from Switzerland Arun Varma, Zürich, Switzerland
Organizational Endorsers from the United Kingdom National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns (NCADC) South Shields Branch of the NASUWT
Individual Endorsers from the United Kingdom Lucy Allais, Philosophy Student at Oxford University, Oxford Ros Bedlow, London Lydia Bruce-Burgess, QMW college, London David Chapkin, London, England Marion Couldrey, Co-Editor of Forced Migration Review Dr. David Cromwell, Southampton Chris Dunham, London, UK Dr Tony Evans, Department of Politics, University of Southampton Rosario Gracia-Luque, University of Sussex, Falmer Robert Holloway, London Naadir Jeewa, London José F. Luna, London Victor Milinkovic, Staffordshire University, Birmingham Michael Mooney, University of Glasgow, Scotland Tim Morris, Co-Editor of Forced Migration Review Malcolm Phillips, School of English, University of St. Andrews, Scotland Nick Rose, Peace Brigades International (British Section) Madeleine Shaw, LL.B Barrister, University of Cambridge Julie Tucker, Peace Brigades International (British Section) Lawrence Upton, Greater London John Walker, London
Individual Endorsers from Venezuela Carlos Torcat, Porlamar, Venezuela Mary de Torcat, Porlamar, Venezuela
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